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原创研究论文摘要的重要性

很多读者可能只会阅读你的论文摘要。而另外一些读者,摘要则会引导他们阅读论文全文。无论哪种情况,摘要都显得尤为重要。摘要的目的在于,读者能够很容易地、快速地掌握文章的关键信息 [2]。然而,写出一个好的摘要的过程,可能让人望而生畏 [1]。

好的摘要具备如下一些普遍特征

  • 简洁、内容紧凑。简单化!
  • 清楚地阐明研究的假设或目的
  • 避免描述不必要的实验细节或统计方法
  • 不含参考文献、表格或图形
  • 极少或几乎不含缩写词语
  • 以简单易懂的方式简明扼要地陈述论文的主要发现
  • 具有与假设或目的相关的简明、清楚的结论
  • 语法正确

遵从期刊关于摘要的要求

  • 结构化与非结构化格式。
    • 如果是结构化的,请使用期刊所建议的标题
  • 字数限制
    • 如果超出字数,期刊可能拒绝接收该文章
    • 与研究的重要信息不相关的内容通常可以省略
      • 不必要的文献引用
      • 不必要的方法细节
      • 与研究目的无关的结果
      • 与结果不直接相关的结论
      • 不必要的赘述
  • 使用缩写的限制
    • 极少或几乎不允许使用缩略语

结构化与非结构化的摘要

  • 结构化摘要比非结构化摘要日益常见 [1,2]
  • 最常使用的结构是IMRAD(即引言、方法、结果和讨论)格式
  • 结构化摘要使得临床方面的读者和审稿者更容易识别出最重要的信息
  • 结构化摘要通常比传统的摘要篇幅更长,但它们可能包含更丰富的信息并易于理解 [3]

下面是一个非结构化摘要和重写后的结构化摘要的例子:

非结构化摘要
Combining antibiotics with plant sterols that have antibacterial activity is a method of increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotics. In this study, we synthesized α-spinasterol from commercially available stigmasterol by a novel method in order to increase its yield, and tested the combination of the α-spinasterol with ceftiofur in vitro against four strains of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of stigmasterol, spinasterol and ceftiofur against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae CAU0070, Salmonella pullorum cvcc533 and Staphylococcus aureus were determined with a tube dilution method. Results showed that MICs of α-spinasterol against the four pathogenic microorganisms were the same for all (256 µg/ml), or one-half that of stigmasterol (512 µg/ml), and much greater than the MIC of ceftiofur (0.125 to 4 µg/ml). The combination of α-spinasterol and ceftiofur were strongly synergetic against the four bacterial strains; the fractional inhibitory concentrations on E. coli, S. pneumoniae CAU0070, S. pullorum cvcc533, and S. aureus were 0.375, 0.375, 0.533 and 0.5, respectively. In time-kill analyses, at concentrations above the MICs, ceftiofur exhibited only time-dependency against the four pathogenic microganisms, whereas ceftiofur in combination with α-spinasterol exhibited time-dependency and concentration-dependency. We conclude that ceftiofur combined with α-spinasterol, synthetized from stigmasterol by our method, is effective against four pathogenic bacterial strains in vitro. Effectiveness of this combination in vivo deserves investigation.

重写后的结构化摘要
Background/Aim. Combining antibiotics with plant sterols that have antibacterial activity is a method of increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotics. In this study, we synthesized α-spinasterol from commercially available stigmasterol by a novel method in order to increase its yield.
Methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of stigmasterol, spinasterol and ceftiofur against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae CAU0070, Salmonella pullorum cvcc533 and Staphylococcus aureus were determined with a tube dilution method.
Results. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of α-spinasterol against the four pathogenic microorganisms were the same for all (256 µg/ml), or one-half that of stigmasterol (512 µg/ml), and much greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration of ceftiofur (0.125 to 4 µg/ml). The combination of α-spinasterol and ceftiofur were strongly synergetic against the four bacterial strains; the fractional inhibitory concentrations on E. coli, S. pneumoniae CAU0070, S. pullorum cvcc533, and S. aureus were 0.375, 0.375, 0.533 and 0.5, respectively. In time-kill analyses, at concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentrations, ceftiofur exhibited only time-dependency against the four pathogenic microganisms, whereas ceftiofur in combination with α-spinasterol exhibited time-dependency and concentration-dependency.
Conclusions. Ceftiofur combined with α-spinasterol, synthetized from stigmasterol by our method, is effective against four pathogenic bacterial strains in vitro. Effectiveness of this combination in vivo deserves investigation.

结构化摘要的构成

  • 引言
    • 介绍研究的简要背景
    • 描述研究的目的,为什么这样做,重点又是什么
  • 方法
    • 描述研究设计和方法,如
      • 回顾性病例对照研究
      • 随机对照研究
  • 结果
    • 给出与目的相关的具体结果
    • 避免出现与目的无关的结果
    • 给出真实数据,必要时给出置信区间和p值 [1]
    • 避免模糊表达,如“相对较大”或“明显差异”
  • 结论
    • 与研究目的直接相关
    • 简洁陈述可以直接从研究中导出的结论
    • 不夸大研究的重要性或价值
    • 简要地解释研究结果和影响,以及对开展进一步研究的建议

References

1. Ezeala, C. C. (2012). Writing a good abstract for a journal article. The 12th Pacific Islands Health Research Symposium. Sept 2012, Nadi Fiji. Cited on: May 5th, 2013. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/1950465

2. Nakayama T1, Hirai N, Yamazaki S, Naito M. Adoption of structured abstracts by general medical journals and format for a structured abstract. J Med Libr Assoc. 2005 Apr;93(2):237-42.

3. Hartley J. J Med Libr Assoc. Current findings from research on structured abstracts. 2004 Jul;92(3):368-71.


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