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医学研究论文写作——简练的重要性

医学研究论文并非是文学巨著,但却是高效和有效地进行学术交流的载体。清晰、简练和简洁是其关键特征。

下面是关于医学研究论文写作的一些基本原则:

  • 谨慎地使用词汇,不使用不必要的词语
  • 从读者的角度出发来写,不浪费读者任何时间
  • 尽量使用短句、陈述句,一个简单的原则是每句话不超过22个单词
    “英文句子简单而直接,则最清晰、有力、易于理解。”——Mimi Zeiger, Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers, 2d edition
  • 避免冗杂和重复
    • 勿在结果部分的数据中逐字重复以表格或图形呈现的结果
      例如:
      表1:Patients’ biographical data (age, sex, weight, and BMI) are given.
      结果:这些数据(age, sex, weight, and BMI)被再次提及时,仅仅写成“Patients’ biographical data are presented in Table 1.”就已经足够了。再例如写成“The two populations did not differ in these criteria.”也是可以的。
    • 勿在讨论部分逐字重复结果部分给出的结果
      例如:
      结果部分:“The median follow-up time from surgery was (33.3±14.0) months in the elderly group and (33.0±12.7) months in the nonelderly group (P=0.266).”
      讨论部分:相较于这样写:“We found that the median follow-up time from surgery was (33.3±14.0) months in the elderly group and (33.0±12.7) months in the nonelderly group (P=0.266).”可以更好地表述为:“We found that mean follow-up time from surgery was nearly identical (about 33 months) in the two study groups.”
    • 勿在讨论部分重复在引言部分中给出的背景信息
      引言部分:“Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, with a five-year survival rate below 5%.”
      讨论部分:“Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Its five-year survival rate is below 5%.”讨论中应该删除这两个重复的句子。
  • 不必要的词,例如:
    • “It is well known that diabetes affects millions of people.”
      如果是众所周知的事情就没有必要再加以说明。所以,这样写就足够了:“Diabetes affects millions of people”.
    • “Similar results have been reported previously in the literature.”
      “Reported”指的就是过去,所以“reported previously”就是多余的. “In the literature”也是不必要的,因为这也是隐含的意思。可以更好地表述为: “Similar results have been reported (文献).”
    • “It has been reported by others.” “By others”是不必要的。这样表述就足够了: “It has been reported (文献)”.
    • “Upon review of the literature we found that diabetic neuropathy has been described often.” “Upon review or the literature” 是不必要的。可以更好地表述为: “Diabetic neuropathy has been described often (文献).”
    • “When comparing x with y we found that x was bigger than y.
      “Comparing x with y”是不必要的。表述为“We found that x was bigger than y”就足够了.
    • “There is” 和 “there are” 是较弱的表达。例如: “There are many investigators who disagree with this opinion.” 可以更好地表述为: “Many investigators disagree with this opinion.”
    • 尺寸、颜色和形状通常表述是多余的。例如:
      “Blue in color.” 使用“Blue” 就足够了。
      “Large in size.” 使用“Large” 就足够了。
      “Oval in shape.” 使用“Oval” 就足够了。
    • “The lesion was successfully excised.” 一个病灶是无法切除失败的。这样表述是正确的:“The lesion was excised.”
    • 尽量使用动词而非名词。“The surgeons made the decision to operate.” 可以更好地表述为: “The surgeons decided to operate.”
  • 避免详尽地回顾文献和相关参考资料。原始的研究论文并非是回顾性的文章。限制文献的数目,只引用那些与现在研究相关的文献。
  • 花时间检查你的工作。大声读出来,或者最好,搁置几天或几周之后再重读它。你会惊奇地发现出现了许多不必要的单词或者句子。

“如果我有更多的时间,我宁愿写一封更短的信。”此句一般认为出自于温斯顿•丘吉尔。

(转载请注明来自LetPub中文官网:www.letpub.com.cn/index.php?page=sci_writing_59


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